Credibility & World Wide Web Activity

Presumed

ECU is known as a reputable Australian university, with advertisements on many platforms, it carries the ‘.edu.au’ suffix and I know people have graduated from here including my mother.

Perceived ECU

ECU homepage screenshot (Murray, 2017).

 

Reputed

Even though the information on facebook is all user generated, much of the internet has links to it and relies on numbers of likes for all kinds of things. The sheer number of links and connectedness Facebook creates makes it a credible website in a reputed sense of the word.

Reputed Facebook

Facebook homepage screenshot (Murray, 2017).

 

Surface

For surface credibility, aesthetics are really the only thing in question. If the site looks well-made and designed like Glenfiddich does, it implies a sense of credibility.

Surface Glenfiddich

Glenfiddich homepage screenshot (Murray, 2017).

 

Earned

Earned credibility is possibly the hardest but the strongest credibility for a website. I have been using Aljazeera for my world news for years now and it is always up to date, little to no ads and easy to navigate.

Earned Aljazeera

Aljazeera homepage screenshot (Murray, 2017).

References

Murray, D. (2017). CCA1108 Communications and digital technology. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University.

Credibility & World Wide Web Question 3

  • Everyone is much more computer literate now. The amount of kids growing up writing code for fun creates a sense of unease. If someone can be hacked or scammed by a teenager in their bedroom, web credibility is on a downwards slope.
  • The increase in cybercrime around the world, even the infiltration of government agencies doesn’t bode well for the Web’s credibility. If the Russian government can allegedly influence the outcome of a US presidential election, then how is anyone safe?
  • Our economy is more and more becoming a digital one with most of our money being mere numbers on servers ultimately linked to the internet. The vulnerability of this to exploited in unthinkable ways is worrying and has the possibility to dent the credibility of the Web.
  • So much is done through the Web now that little is tangible anymore, it seems like we’re putting all our eggs in one basket.
  • The conclusion of Fight Club springs to mind and the wiping of the credit debt by destroying the major banking and lending corporations’ headquarters.

Credibility & World Wide Web Question 2

Wikipedia is an excellent ‘springboard’ for the genesis of research on almost any given topic. It carries the ‘.org’ suffix which is shown to ad to a sites credibility and is moderated by administrators which would make it seem even more credible (Fogg, 2003). However, while these attributes may make it a credible website in some regards, it does not meet the standards for academic assignment references.

Finding general information about a topic on Wikipedia is easy and usually one of the first sites that appears in search engine results. But there is a fundamental flaw in its design that discounts its credibility for academic purposes; anyone can edit it and make entries. This openness is its downfall.

Wikipedia entries can be penned by anyone and while they may get taken down if they are outrageously false, the authors credibility cannot be verified. It is through the references used by the article that valid, peer reviewed and credible information can be accessed. There is no academic body that governs Wikipedia and thus the information presented there cannot be vouched and trusted.

Peer reviewed journals with worldly reputations for excellence and aplomb are the best source of information for academic assignments and the only ones really worth referencing.

References

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using             Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147‐181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Credibility & World Wide Web Question 1

Fogg (2003) asserts that trustworthiness and expertise are the two components to credibility on the web and in a general sense. Seeing that a large amount of the worlds’ population has access to the internet it behoves us to evaluate the credibility of the websites we visit. Giving away personal information like phone numbers and credit card details to parties on the internet implies a huge amount of trust on both parts and establishing credibility before doing so is imperative.

Purchasing goods and services on the web has become somewhat of a norm in today’s society and an obsession in some cases. Finding and appraising the credibility of sites that offer this function is in our own best interest lest we get scammed. Facilities like Scam Watch (Australian Competition & Consumer Commission [ACCC], n.d.) which are government run prerogatives are here to help and recognisable as credible due to the suffix ‘.gov.au’, the Australian coat of arms and ACCC logos. Protecting your personal information online is up to the individual and so assessing the credibility of websites is critical.

Students can get into trouble by accessing sites with limited or no credibility when using them as sources in assignments. False information can lose marks or worse, the information used can be plagiarised or referenced incorrectly. Using satirical news sites like The Onion can, without the knowledge of its jovial nature, get students into trouble by citing false news articles.

References

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and Computers. In Persuasive Technology: Using                  Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 122‐125). Amsterdam: Morgan     Kaufmann Publishers.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using             Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147‐181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Scam Watch (n.d.). Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. Retrieved from     https://www.scamwatch.gov.au

The Onion (n.d.). America’s finest news source. Retrieved from http://www.theonion.com

Performance Load Visual Examples

Computers

Computers are maybe the archetypal example of the pinnacle of performance load when it comes to cognitive load. They have simplified millions of tasks so that we can surf the internet at the click of a button, use word processors to write letters and everything else that comes with the age of computers. Whereas they used to be complicated machines used only by scientists, they are now a symbol for our tech savvy age.

computer

Apple Mac Desktop (Murray, 2017)

 

Elevator

Elevators are a good way of showing a reduction in kinetic load. The fit the design principle by taking out the physical monotony of climbing many flights of stairs and also cut down on the time it would usually take to do so.

elevator

ECU Elevator (Murray, 2017)

 

Vending Machines

Now with the addition of PayPass to our bank cards, the cognitive load of remembering a pin is eliminated and attaching them to a vending machine which is taking the physical steps of staff getting drinks for you and hence decreasing the kinetic load, such machines are a good example of reducing performance load in the whole sense.

vending machine

Coca-cola vending machine (Murray, 2017)

References

Murray, D. (2017). CCA1108 Communications and digital technology. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University.

Performance Load Question 3

The way in which we think is a rather measurable quantity and when it comes to design the most successful approach is often one that incorporates psychology. Having studied psychology units in the past, it becomes apparent very quickly that many people think in a similar way which can be predicted. It is through this predictability that design must take advantage. If we know how someone will react to various design mechanisms and techniques, their response to a product can be manipulated according to a designer’s whim. The scientific data is out there and to ignore it during the visual design process seems like a waste of resources. Instead of thinking the way a target audience may perceive a design, research has already been done into things like the psychology of colour and shapes and this should be utilised. This is not to discount the fact that everyone perceives things differently, which they do, but there are trends that really need to be recognised and taken into account to create effective visual designs.

Performance Load Question 2

Chunking refers to grouping of like information in the hope that a better retention rate can be achieved (Mayzner, 1963; Miller, 1956; Thornton & Conway, 2013). Miller (1963) first posited the term ‘chunk’ in reference to our ability to compile bits of information like letters into syllables and syllables into words as a way of better retaining information.  In the case of design and visual communication, chunking is primarily associated with the cognitive load of a task. If a design contains similar information that needs to be interpreted, compiling this information in a like way can help the user better comprehend the message that needs to be understood. Chunking helps to decrease the cognitive load associated with visual communication. Harking back to production load, a reduction in cognitive load can assist in the ease of successfully communicating through visual design. This is at the core of all good design, making it as easy as possible for the end user to understand and utilise whatever may be the purpose of said design. Chunking is one way of increasing the efficiency of a design and is backed up by scientific research.

References

Mayzner, M. (1963). Information “Chunking” and short-Term retention. The Journal of    Psychology, 56(1), 161-164. doi:10.1080/00223980.1963.9923710

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our   capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97.

Thornton, M. A. & Conway, A. R. A. (2013). Working memory for social information:        Chunking or domain-specific buffer? Neuroimage, 70, 233-9. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.12.063

Performance Load Question 1

The article outlines the general and somewhat self-evident paradigm that tasks which are mentally and physically more arduous and involved than simplified ones are less likely to be completed successfully or with more errors and vice versa (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003). It goes on to describe that this is termed ‘performance load’ which is comprised of ‘cognitive load’ and ‘kinetic load’ (Miller, 1956; Sweller, 1988; Zipf, 1949). As the names suggest, cognitive refers to the mental aspect of a task and kinetic to the physical.  They assert that by reducing the amount of mental activity in ways such that less retention and problem solving are required along with reducing the number of physical steps and their difficulty is the avenue down which design should be travelling (Lidwell et al., 2003). Essentially, the lower the production load (cognitive and physical), the higher the likelihood of a successful completion of whatever the designated task may be.

References

Lidwell, W., Holden, K. & Butler, J. (2003). Performance Load. In Universal Principles of   Design (pp. 148-149). Beverly, Massachusetts: Rockport

Miller, G, A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our   capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81-97.

Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive               Science, 12(2), 257-285. doi:10.1207/s15516709cog1202_4

Zipf, G, K. (1949). Human behavior and the principle of least effort. Boston, Massachusetts:       Addison-Wesley [2016 reprint]

Consistency Question 2

Exit sign.

Building signs, and in this case an exit sign, are good examples of functional consistency. They portray a universally and easily understandable meaning (the direction to an exit of a building). The functionality of the design is its purpose and they are consistent throughout most of the world and require little to no thinking to decipher. Without this quick connection being made by whoever sees it, the sign would be useless; its meaning and action are obvious.

exit sign

Exit signs (Murray, 2017)

 

Apple Logo

The apple logo is now known the world over. It is a prime example of aesthetic consistency eliciting thoughts of sleek, fashion conscious and intuitive design. Apple also has an air of prestige about it, being one of the biggest companies in the world, and the consistency of their designs along with the all too well known logo helps to portray this. In a way, the logo is a symbol of elegance and simplicity, almost separate to the products the company produces. However, the logo could and can be linked with the multinational corporation machine and its ill treatment of workers in factories across the globe. Consistency can provide multiple connotations of meaning.

 apple logo

Apple Logo on Apple Mac (Murray, 2017) 

 

ECU Signs

Direction signs like the ones found at ECU can be shown as an example of not only functional consistency, but internal and external consistency too. They are functional in a sense that they are serving an obvious purpose of pointing out locations on campus but the consistencies within themselves can be analysed too. The numbering is all one font and so are the building names with a common colour theme throughout. This consistency helps us know that when we see one of these signs that it will invariably be giving locations of buildings and their descriptions in relation to the spot they are viewed from.

ecu signs

ECU Signposts (Murray, 2017)

References

Murray, D. (2017) CCA1108 Communications and digital technology. Perth, Australia: Edith Cowan University

Consistency Question 1

Concerning consistency in design, the article puts forward the four key facets: aesthetic, functional, internal and external. A system of consistency allows the viewer to make connections and “efficiently transfer knowledge to new contexts, learn new things quickly, and focus attention on the relevant aspects of a task” (Lidwell, Holden and Butler, 2003, pp. 46). It is through consistency, and the logic behind it, that we are able to learn things more quickly as we tend to group similar information together. The repetition is what sticks and randomness that doesn’t because it is much harder to order things with little connection. We need consistency in order to make logical connections otherwise a cognitive dissonance arises and little understanding can be found (Gawronski, 2012).

The four aspects of consistency are then discussed. Aesthetic consistency concerns appearance and style which conjures associations with a product and what it represents (Lidwell et al., 2003). Functional consistency, is, as the name suggests, functional. Consistency in a system denoting meanings and actions that are shared across a range of products allow for ease of use like the play, pause and skip buttons on media devices (Lidwell et al., 2003). Internal and external consistency are linked in a sense that elements in a system the same (internal) and the same elements can still be linked in a different environment (external) (Lidwell et al., 2003).

Our learning of something greatly improves if the principles of consistency are present and present in such a way that intuitive connections are made easily (Nikolov, 2017). Regularity increases the usability and “a system is improved when similar parts are expressed in similar ways.” (Lidwell et al., 2003, pp. 46). A good design is almost unnoticeable as everything is intuitive through consistency and familiarity (Toscano, 2016).

 

References

Gawronski, B. (2012). Cognitive consistency as a basic principle of social information      processing. In Cognitive consistency: A fundamental principle in social cognition. (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K. & Butler, J. (2003). Consistency. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 46). Beverly, Massachusetts: Rockport

Nikolov, A. (2017, April 8). Design principle: Consistency. [Blog Post]. Retrieved from       https://uxdesign.cc/design-principle-consistency-6b0cf7e7339f

Tocsano, J. (2016, January 25). The value of consistent design. [Blog post]. Retrieved from         https://www.invisionapp.com/blog/consistent-design/